In the most recent analysis, OpenAI’s Tyna Eloundou, Sam Manning, and Pamela Mishkin, with the University of Pennsylvania’s Daniel Rock, found that large language models such as GPT could have some effect on 80% of the US workforce. They further estimated that the AI models, including GPT-4 and other anticipated software tools, would heavily affect 19% of jobs, with at least 50% of the tasks in those jobs “exposed.” In contrast to what we saw in earlier waves of automation, higher-income jobs would be most affected, they suggest. Some of the people whose jobs are most vulnerable: writers, web and digital designers, financial quantitative analysts, and—just in case you were thinking of a career change—blockchain engineers.

“There is no question that (generative AI) is going to be used—it’s not just a novelty,” says David Autor, an MIT labor economist and a leading expert on the impact of technology